Alan M. Hirahara, MD, FRCSC
Orthopaedic SurgeonSpecialist in Sports Medicine

The Shoulder

The Shoulder is made up of three bones: humerus, clavicle, and scapula.  Because it is such a mobile joint and relies on the soft tissue for its stability, it is frequently injured from traumatic or degenerative problems.  With so many structures that contribute to its stability, it can be very challenging to properly diagnose the problems associated with the shoulder.  Sources of pain can include the rotator cuff, labrum, instability, biceps, cartilage (arthritis), AC joint, the neck, and many more.  A thorough history, physical exam, and appropriate imaging is required to diagnose the source of pain so that we can determine the best treatment plan, either surgical or non-surgical.

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